Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) is an American recording
artist, entertainer, and businessman. The seventh child of the Jackson family,
he debuted on the professional music scene at the age of 11 as a member of The
Jackson 5 and began a solo career in 1971 while still a member of the group.
Referred to as the "King of Pop" in subsequent years, five of his solo studio
albums have become some of the world's best-selling records: Off the Wall
(1979), Thriller (1982), Bad (1987), Dangerous (1991) and
In the early 1980s, he became a dominant figure in popular music and the
first African-American entertainer to amass a strong crossover following on MTV.
The popularity of his music videos airing on MTV, such as "Beat It", "Billie
Jean" and Thriller—credited for transforming the music video into an art
form and a promotional tool—helped bring the relatively new channel to fame.
Videos such as "Black or White" and "Scream" made Jackson an enduring staple on
MTV into the 1990s. With stage performances and music videos, Jackson
popularized a number of physically complicated dance techniques, such as the
robot and the moonwalk. His distinctive musical sound and vocal style influenced
numerous hip hop, pop and contemporary R&B artists.
Jackson has donated and raised millions of dollars for beneficial causes
through his foundation, charity singles and support of 39 charities. Other
aspects of his personal life—including his changing appearance and
behaviour—generated significant controversy which damaged his public image.
Though he was accused of child sexual abuse in 1993, the criminal investigation
was closed due to lack of evidence and Jackson was not charged. He then married
twice and fathered three children, all of which caused further controversy. The
singer has experienced health concerns since the early 1990s and conflicting
reports regarding the state of his finances since the late 1990s. In 2005,
Jackson was tried and acquitted of further sexual abuse allegations and several
Pass It On
One of the few artists to have been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of
Fame twice, his other achievements include multiple Guinness World Records—including
one for "Most Successful Entertainer of All Time"—13 Grammy Awards, 13 number
one singles in his solo career—more than any other male artist in the Hot 100
era—and the sale of over 750 million units worldwide. Jackson's highly
publicized personal life, coupled with his successful career, has made him a
part of popular culture for almost four decades. He has been cited as one of the
world's most famous men.
|On the morning of June 25, 2009, Jackson
reportedly collapsed at a rented home in Holmby Hills in Los
Angeles. After he collapsed, Jackson's personal physician, who was
with him at the time, attempted to resuscitate him. Los Angeles Fire
Department paramedics responded to a 911 call at 12:21 pm (PST) and
arrived nine minutes later. Jackson was reportedly not breathing and
CPR was quickly performed. Resuscitation efforts continued both en
route to the UCLA Medical Center, and after arrival at approximately
1:14 pm (20:14 UTC), for a further hour. He fell into a coma and
died shortly after arrival. The cause of death is as yet
unknown, but he was noted to be already in cardiac arrest by the
paramedics who attended him. Jackson was pronounced dead at about
2:26 pm local time (21:26 UTC).
Police Department homicide and robbery division detectives attended
the scene as a matter of routine in high profile death cases. The
case was transferred to the Los Angeles coroner for investigation as
there was no doctor in attendance to sign the death certificate.
Jackson's body was transported by helicopter from UCLA to the LA
Coroners offices in Boyle Heights. The autopsy is said to be
scheduled for Friday, June 26, 2009.
Prior to his death, Jackson had been scheduled to
perform 50 sold-out concerts to over one million people, at London's
O2 arena, from July 13, 2009 to March 6, 2010. During a
publicity press conference, Jackson made suggestions of possible
retirement. Randy Phillips, president and chief executive of AEG
Live, had stated that the first 10 dates alone would have earned the
singer approximately £50 million.
reportedly had been administered drugs such as propofol and
lorazepam, and his death was ruled a homicide by the Los Angeles
1958–1975: Early life and The Jackson 5
Michael Joseph Jackson was born in Gary, Indiana (an industrial suburb of
Chicago, Illinois) to a working-class family on August 29, 1958.
The son of Joseph Walter "Joe" and Katherine Esther (née Scruse),
he is the seventh of nine children. His siblings are Rebbie, Jackie, Tito,
Jermaine, La Toya, Marlon, Randy and Janet.
Joseph Jackson was a steel mill employee who often performed in an R&B band
called The Falcons with his brother Luther.
Jackson was raised as one of Jehovah's Witnesses by his devout mother.
From a young age Jackson was physically and mentally abused by his father,
enduring incessant rehearsals, whippings and name-calling. Jackson's abuse as a
child affected him throughout his grown life.
In one altercation—later recalled by Marlon Jackson—Joseph held Michael upside
down by one leg and "pummelled him over and over again with his hand, hitting
him on his back and buttocks".
Joseph would often trip up, or push the male children into walls.
One night while Jackson was asleep, Joseph climbed into his room through the
bedroom window. Wearing a fright mask, he entered the room screaming and
shouting. Joseph said he wanted to teach his children not to leave the window
open when they went to sleep. For years afterward, Jackson suffered nightmares
about being kidnapped from his bedroom.
Jackson first spoke openly about his childhood abuse in a 1993 interview with
Oprah Winfrey. He said that during his childhood he often cried from loneliness
and would sometimes get sick or start to regurgitate upon seeing his father.
In Jackson's other high profile interview, Living with Michael Jackson
(2003), the singer covered his face with his hand and began crying when talking
about his childhood abuse.
Jackson recalled that Joseph sat in a chair with a belt in his hand as he and
his siblings rehearsed and that "if you didn't do it the right way, he would
tear you up, really get you."
Jackson showed musical talent early in his life, performing in front of
classmates and others during a Christmas recital at the age of five.
In 1964, Jackson and Marlon joined the Jackson Brothers—a band formed by
brothers Jackie, Tito and Jermaine—as backup musicians playing congas and
tambourine, respectively. Jackson later began performing backup vocals and
dancing; at the age of eight, he and Jermaine assumed lead vocals, and the
group's name was changed to The Jackson 5.
The band toured the Midwest extensively from 1966 to 1968. The band frequently
performed at a string of black clubs and venues collectively known as the "chitlin'
circuit", where they often opened for stripteases and other adult acts. In 1966,
they won a major local talent show with renditions of Motown hits and James
Brown's "I Got You (I Feel Good)", led by Michael.
The Jackson 5 recorded several songs, including "Big Boy", for the local
record label Steeltown in 1967 and signed with Motown Records in 1968.
Rolling Stone magazine later described the young Michael as "a prodigy"
with "overwhelming musical gifts", noting that Michael "quickly emerged as the
main draw and lead singer" after he began to dance and sing with his brothers.
Though Michael sang with a "child's piping voice, he danced like a grown-up
hoofer and sang with the R&B/gospel inflections of Sam Cooke, James Brown, Ray
Charles and Stevie Wonder".
The group set a chart record when its first four singles ("I Want You Back",
"ABC", "The Love You Save" and "I'll Be There") peaked at number one on the
Billboard Hot 100.
During The Jackson 5's early years, Motown's public relations team claimed that
Jackson was nine years old—two years younger than he actually was—to make him
appear cuter and more accessible to the mainstream audience.
Starting in 1972, Jackson released a total of four solo studio albums with
Motown, among them Got to Be There and Ben. These were released as
part of the Jackson 5 franchise, and produced successful singles such as "Got to
Be There", "Ben" and a remake of Bobby Day's "Rockin' Robin". The group's sales
began declining in 1973, and the band members chafed under Motown's strict
refusal to allow them creative control or input.
Although the group scored several top 40 hits, including the top 5 disco single
"Dancing Machine" and the top 20 hit "I Am Love", the Jackson 5 left Motown in
1976–1981: Move to Epic and Off the Wall
The Jackson 5 signed a new contract with CBS Records in June 1975, joining
first the Philadelphia International Records division and then Epic Records.
As a result of legal proceedings, the group was renamed The Jacksons.
After the name change, the band continued to tour internationally, releasing six
more albums between 1976 and 1984. From 1976 to 1984, Michael Jackson was the
lead songwriter of the group, writing hits such as "Shake Your Body (Down to the
Ground)", "This Place Hotel" and "Can You Feel It".
In 1978, Jackson starred as Scarecrow in the film musical The Wiz.
The musical scores were arranged by Quincy Jones, who formed a partnership with
Jackson during the film's production and agreed to produce the singer's solo
album Off the Wall.
In 1979, Jackson broke his nose during a complex dance routine. His subsequent
rhinoplasty surgery was not a complete success, and Jackson complained of
breathing difficulties that would affect his career. He was referred to Dr.
Steven Hoefflin, who performed Jackson's second rhinoplasty and other subsequent
Jones and Jackson jointly produced Off the Wall, whose songwriters
included Jackson, Heatwave's Rod Temperton, Stevie Wonder and Paul McCartney.
Released in 1979, Off the Wall was the first album to generate four US
top 10 hits, including the chart-topping singles "Don't Stop 'Til You Get
Enough" and "Rock with You".
Off the Wall reached number three on the Billboard 200 and has
since been certified for 7 million shipments in the US and eventually sold over
20 million copies worldwide.
In 1980, Jackson won three awards at the American Music Awards for his solo
efforts: Favorite Soul/R&B Album, Favourite Male Soul/R&B Artist and Favorite
Soul/R&B Single (for "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough").
That year, he also won Billboard Music Awards for Top Black Artist and
Top Black Album and a Grammy Award for Best Male R&B Vocal Performance (for
"Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough").
Despite its commercial success, Jackson felt Off the Wall should have
made a much bigger impact, and was determined to exceed expectations with his
next release. In 1980, Jackson
secured the highest royalty rate in the music industry: 37% of wholesale album
1982–1985: Thriller, Motown 25, We
Are the World and business career
In 1982, Jackson contributed the song "Someone In the Dark" to the storybook
for the film E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial; the record won a Grammy for Best
Album for Children. That year
Jackson issued his second Epic album, Thriller. The album remained in the
top 10 of the Billboard 200 for 80 consecutive weeks and 37 of those
weeks at the peak position. It was the first album to have seven Billboard
Hot 100 top 10 singles, including "Billie Jean", "Beat It" and "Wanna Be Startin'
was certified for 28 million shipments by the RIAA, giving it Double Diamond
status in the US.
It is often cited as the best-selling album of all time, with worldwide sales
between 47 million and 109 million copies.
Jackson's attorney John Branca noted that Jackson had the highest royalty
rate in the music industry at that point; approximately $2 for every album sold.
He was also making record breaking profit from compact discs or the sale of
The Making of Michael Jackson's Thriller; a documentary produced by Jackson
and John Landis. Funded by MTV, the documentary sold over 350,000 copies in a
few months of sale. The era saw the arrival of novelties like the Michael
Jackson doll, that appeared in stores in May 1984 at a price of $12.
Thriller retains a position in American culture; biographer J. Randy
Taraborrelli explains, "At some point, Thriller stopped selling like a
leisure item—like a magazine, a toy, tickets to a hit movie—and started selling
like a household staple."
Gil Friesen, President of A&M Records, said "the whole industry has a stake
in this success".
Thriller raised the importance of albums, but multiple hits also changed
notions about the number of singles to release.
Time magazine explained that "the fallout from Thriller has given
the [music] business its best years since the heady days of 1978, when it had an
estimated total domestic revenue of $4.1 billion".
Time summed up Thriller's impact as a "restoration of confidence"
for an industry bordering on "the ruins of punk and the chic regions of
synthesizer pop". The publication described Jackson's influence at that point as
"Star of records, radio, rock video. A one-man rescue team for the music
business. A songwriter who sets the beat for a decade. A dancer with the
fanciest feet on the street. A singer who cuts across all boundaries of taste
and style and color too".
The New York Times called him a "musical phenomenon", saying that "in the
world of pop music, there is Michael Jackson and there is everybody else".
According to the The Washington Post, Thriller paved the way for
other acts such as Prince.
On March 25, 1983, Jackson performed live on the Motown 25: Yesterday,
Today, Forever television special, both with The Jackson 5 and on his own
singing "Billie Jean". Debuting his signature dance move—the moonwalk—his
performances during the event were seen by 47 million viewers during its initial
airing, and drew comparisons to Elvis Presley's and the The Beatles' appearances
on The Ed Sullivan Show.
The New York Times said, "The moonwalk that he made famous is an apt
metaphor for his dance style. How does he do it? As a technician, he is a great
illusionist, a genuine mime. His ability to keep one leg straight as he glides
while the other bends and seems to walk requires perfect timing".
Jackson suffered a setback on January 27, 1984. While filming a Pepsi Cola
commercial at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles, Jackson suffered second
degree burns to his scalp after pyrotechnics accidentally set his hair on fire.
Happening in front of a full house of fans during a simulated concert, the
incident was the subject of heavy media scrutiny and elicited an outpouring of
PepsiCo settled a lawsuit out of court, and Jackson gave his $1.5 million
settlement to the "Michael Jackson Burn Center" which was a piece of new
technology to help people with severe burns.
Jackson had his third rhinoplasty shortly afterward and grew self conscious
about his appearance.
On May 14, 1984, Jackson was invited to the White House to receive an award
presented by American President Ronald Reagan. The award was given for Jackson's
support of charities that helped people overcome alcohol and drug abuse.
Jackson won eight awards during the 1984 Grammys. Unlike later albums,
Thriller did not have an official tour to promote it, but the 1984 Victory
Tour, headlined by The Jacksons, showcased much of Jackson's new solo material
to more than two million Americans.
He donated his $5 million share from the Victory Tour to charity.
Jackson co-wrote the charity single "We Are the World" with Lionel Richie,
which was released worldwide to aid the poor in Africa and the US. He was one of
39 music celebrities who performed on the record. The single became one of the
best-selling singles of all time, with nearly 20 million copies sold and
millions of dollars donated to famine relief. It was also the first time Jackson
was seen as a humanitarian.
While working with Paul McCartney on the two hit singles "The Girl Is Mine"
and "Say Say Say", the pair became friendly, occasionally visiting one another.
In one discussion, McCartney told Jackson about the millions of dollars he had
made from music catalogs; he was earning approximately $40 million a year from
other people's songs. Jackson then began a business career buying, selling and
distributing publishing rights to music from numerous artists. Shortly afterward
Northern Songs—a music catalog holding thousands of songs, including The
Beatles' back catalogue and songs by Elvis Presley—was put up for sale.
Jackson took immediate interest in the catalog but was warned that he would
face strong competition. Excited, he skipped around the room saying, "I don't
care. I want those songs. Get me those songs Branca [his attorney]". Branca then
contacted the attorney of McCartney, who clarified that his client was not
interested in bidding because, "It's too pricey". After Jackson had started
negotiations, McCartney changed his mind and tried to persuade Yoko Ono to join
him in a joint bid, she declined, so he pulled out. Jackson eventually beat the
rest of the competition in negotiations that lasted 10 months, purchasing the
catalog for $47.5 million. When McCartney found out he said, "I think it's dodgy
to do things like that. To be someone's friend and then buy the rug they're
standing on". Reacting to that statement, biographer J. Randy Taraborrelli
observed that McCartney made millions of dollars from the music of other people.
He had more money than Jackson at that point so could have made a substantial
bid for his own music and would not have suffered financial difficulties from
Jackson owning the catalogue.
1986–1990: Tabloids, appearance, Bad,
autobiography and films
In 1986, the tabloid press ran a story claiming that Jackson slept in a
hyperbaric oxygen chamber to slow the aging process; he was pictured lying down
in a glass box. Although the claim was untrue, Jackson disseminated the
fabricated story himself. The singer was promoting his upcoming movie Captain
EO and wanted to promote a sci-fi image of himself.
Jackson had a fourth rhinoplasty and, wanting masculine features, had a cleft
put in his chin.
Then he starred in the Francis Ford Coppola-directed 3-D film Captain EO.
It was the most expensive film produced on a per-minute basis at the time, and
was later hosted in Disney theme parks. Disneyland featured the film in its
Tomorrowland area for nearly 11 years, while Walt Disney World screened the film
in its Epcot theme park from 1986 to 1994.
Jackson bought and befriended a pet chimpanzee called Bubbles, an act which
extended his eccentric persona. In 2003 the singer claimed that Bubbles shared
his toilet, and cleaned his bedroom.
Later it was reported that Jackson bought the bones of The Elephant Man.
Although untrue, it was a story that Jackson again disseminated to the tabloid
These stories inspired the pejorative nickname "Wacko Jacko", which Jackson
acquired the following year. He would eventually come to despise the nickname.
Realizing his mistake, he stopped leaking untruths to the press. However due to
the profit being made, the media began making up their own stories.
Jackson's skin was a medium-brown colour for the entire duration of his
youth, but starting in the early 1980s, his skin gradually grew paler. This
change gained widespread media coverage, including rumours that Jackson was
bleaching his skin.
In the mid-1980s, Jackson was diagnosed with vitiligo and lupus; the latter is
in remission in Jackson's case, and both illnesses make him sensitive to
sunlight. The treatments he uses for his condition further lighten his skin
tone, and, with the application of pancake makeup to even out blotches, he can
appear very pale.
The structure of his face has changed as well; several surgeons have speculated
that Jackson had undergone multiple nasal surgeries, a forehead lift, thinned
lips and a cheekbone surgery.
Changes to his face were, in part, due to periods of significant weight loss.
Jackson became slimmer in the early 1980s because of a change in diet and a
desire for "a dancer's body".
Witnesses reported that Jackson was often dizzy and speculated that he was
suffering from anorexia nervosa; periods of weight loss would became a recurring
problem for the singer later in life.
Some medical professionals have publicly stated their belief that the singer has
body dysmorphic disorder, a psychological condition whereby the sufferer has no
concept of how they are perceived by others.
Why not just tell people I'm an alien from Mars. Tell them I eat live
chickens and do a voodoo dance at midnight. They'll believe anything
you say, because you're a reporter. But if I, Michael
Jackson, were to say, "I'm an alien from Mars and I eat live chickens
and do a voodoo dance at midnight", people would say, "Oh, man, that
Michael Jackson is nuts. He's cracked up. You can't believe a
damn word that comes out of his mouth".
With the industry expecting another major hit, Jackson's first album in five
years, Bad (1987), was highly anticipated.
Bad had lower sales than Thriller, but was still a substantial
commercial success. In the US, it spawned seven hit singles, five of which ("I
Just Can't Stop Loving You", "Bad", "The Way You Make Me Feel", "Man in the
Mirror" and "Dirty Diana") went to number one on the Billboard Hot 100
charts, more than any other album.
As of 2008, the album sold 30 million copies worldwide, including eight million
shipments in the US.
The Bad World Tour began on September 12, 1987, and finished on January 14,
1989. In Japan
alone, the tour had 14 sell-outs and drew 570,000 people, nearly tripling the
previous record of 200,000 in a single tour.
Jackson broke a Guinness World Record when 504,000 people attended seven
sold-out shows at Wembley Stadium. He performed a total of 123 concerts to a
total audience of 4.4 million people, and gained a further Guinness World
Record when the tour grossed him $125 million. During the trip he invited
underprivileged children to watch for free and gave donations to hospitals,
orphanages and other charities.
In 1988, Jackson released his first autobiography, Moon Walk, which
took four years to complete. Jackson told of his childhood, his experience in
The Jackson 5 and the abuse he suffered as a child.
He also spoke of his plastic surgery, saying he had two rhinoplastic surgeries
and the surgical creation of a cleft in his chin.
In the book, he attributed the change in the structure of his face to puberty,
weight loss, a strict vegetarian diet, a change in hair style and stage
Moonwalk reached the top position on The New York Times best sellers'
The musician then released a film called Moonwalker, which featured live
footage, music videos, and a feature film that starred Jackson and Joe Pesci.
Moonwalker debuted atop the Billboard Top Music Video Cassette chart,
staying there for 22 weeks. It was eventually knocked off the top spot by
Michael Jackson: The Legend Continues.
In March 1988, Jackson purchased land near Santa Ynez, California to build
Neverland Ranch at a cost of $17 million. It is a 2,700-acre (11 km2)
property complete with Ferris wheels, an exotic menagerie, a movie theater and a
security staff of 40. The property was valued at approximately $100 million in
In 1989, his annual earnings from album sales, endorsements and concerts was
estimated at $125 million for that year alone.
Shortly afterward, Jackson became the first Westerner to appear in a television
advert for Russia.
Jackson's success resulted in his being dubbed the "King of Pop", a nickname
conceived by actress and friend Elizabeth Taylor when she presented Jackson with
an "Artist of the Decade" award in 1989, proclaiming him "the true king of pop,
rock and soul".
President George H. W. Bush presented the singer with The White House's special
"Artist of the Decade" award in recognition of Jackson's musical influence in
the 1980s; Bush commended Jackson for acquiring a "tremendous following" among
From 1985 to 1990, Jackson donated $500,000 to the United Negro College Fund,
and all of the profits from his single "Man in the Mirror" went to charity.
Jackson's live rendition of "You Were There" at Sammy Davis Jr. 60th birthday
celebration received an Emmy nomination.
1991–1992: Dangerous and Super Bowl
In March 1991, Jackson renewed his contract with Sony for $65 million; a
record breaking deal at the time.
Jackson released his eighth album Dangerous in 1991. As of 2008,
Dangerous has shipped 7 million copies in the US and has sold 30 million
copies worldwide; it has been selling at a faster pace than his prior release
In the US, the album's first single "Black or White" was the album's biggest
hit, reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100 and remaining there for
seven weeks, with similar chart performances worldwide.
The album's second single "Remember the Time" spent eight weeks in the top five
in the US, peaking at number three on the Billboard Hot 100 singles
In 1993, Jackson performed the song at the Soul Train Awards in a wheelchair,
saying he had suffered an injury in rehearsals.
In the UK and other parts of Europe, "Heal the World" was the biggest hit from
the album; it sold 450,000 copies in the UK and spent five weeks at two in 1992.
Jackson founded the "Heal the World Foundation" in 1992. The charity
organization brought underprivileged children to Jackson's ranch, to go on theme
park rides that Jackson had built on the property after he purchased it. The
foundation also sent millions of dollars around the globe to help children
threatened by war and disease. The Dangerous World Tour began on June 27, 1992,
and finished on November 11, 1993. Jackson performed to 3.5 million people in 67
concerts. All profits from the concerts went to the "Heal the World Foundation",
raising millions of dollars in relief.
He sold the broadcast rights to his Dangerous world tour to HBO for
$20 million, a record-breaking deal that still stands.
Following the illness and death of Ryan White, Jackson helped draw public
attention to HIV/AIDS, something that was still controversial at the time. He
publicly pleaded with the Clinton Administration at Bill Clinton's Inaugural
Gala to give more money to HIV/AIDS charities and research.
In a high-profile visit to Africa, Jackson visited several countries, among
them Gabon and Egypt.
His first stop to Gabon was greeted with a sizable reception of more than
100,000 people in "spiritual bedlam", some of them carrying signs that read,
"Welcome Home Michael".
In his trip to the Ivory Coast, Jackson was crowned "King Sani" by a tribal
chief. He then thanked
the dignitaries in French and English, signed official documents formalizing his
kingship and sat on a golden throne while presiding over ceremonial dances.
One of Jackson's most acclaimed performances came during the halftime show at
Super Bowl XXVII. As the performances began, Jackson was catapulted onto the
stage as fireworks went off behind him. As he landed on the canvass, he
maintained a motionless "clenched fist, standing statue stance", dressed in a
gold and black military outfit and sunglasses; he remained completely motionless
for several minutes while the crowd cheered. He then slowly removed his
sunglasses, threw them away and began to sing and dance. His routine included
four songs: "Jam", "Billie Jean", "Black or White" and "Heal the World". It was
the first Super Bowl where the audience figures increased during the half-time
show, and was viewed by 135 million Americans alone; Jackson's Dangerous
album rose 90 places up the album chart.
Jackson was given the "Living Legend Award" at the 35th Annual Grammy Awards
in Los Angeles. "Black or White" was Grammy nominated for best vocal
performance. "Jam" gained two nominations: Best R&B Vocal Performance and Best
1993–1994: Sexual abuse accusations and marriage
Jackson gave a 90-minute interview with Oprah Winfrey in February 1993, his
first television interview since 1979. He grimaced when speaking of his
childhood abuse at the hands of his father; he believed he had missed out on
much of his childhood years, admitting that he often cried from loneliness. He
denied previous tabloid rumors that he bought the bones of the Elephant Man or
slept in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber. The entertainer went on to dispel
suggestions that he bleached his skin, admitting for the first time that he had
vitiligo. The interview was watched by 90 million Americans, becoming the fourth
most-viewed non-sport program in US history. It also started a public debate on
the topic of vitiligo, a relatively unknown condition before then. Dangerous
re-entered the album chart top 10, more than a year after its original release.
Jackson was accused of child sexual abuse by a 13-year-old child named Jordan
Chandler and his father Evan Chandler.
The friendship between Jackson and Evan Chandler broke down. Sometime afterward,
Evan Chandler was tape-recorded saying amongst other things, "If I go through
with this, I win big-time. There's no way I lose. I will get everything I want
and they will be destroyed forever...Michael's career will be over".
A year after they had met, under the influence of a controversial sedative,
Jordan Chandler told his father that Jackson had touched his penis.
Evan Chandler and Jackson, represented by their legal teams, then engaged in
unsuccessful negotiations to resolve the issue in a financial settlement; the
negotiations were initiated by Chandler but Jackson did make several counter
offers. Jordan Chandler then told a psychiatrist and later police that he and
Jackson had engaged in acts of kissing, masturbation and oral sex, as well as
giving a detailed description of what he alleged were the singer's genitals.
An official investigation began, with Jordan Chandler's mother adamant that
there was no wrongdoing on Jackson's part. Neverland Ranch was searched;
multiple children and family members strongly denied that he was a pedophile.
Jackson's image took a further turn for the worse when his older sister La Toya
Jackson accused him of being a pedophile, a statement she later retracted.
Jackson agreed to a 25-minute strip search, conducted at his ranch. The search
was required to see if a description provided by Jordan Chandler was accurate.
Doctors concluded that there were some strong similarities, but it was not a
Jackson made an emotional public statement on the events; he proclaimed his
innocence, criticized what he perceived as biased media coverage and told of his
Jackson began taking painkillers, Valium, Xanax and Ativan to deal with the
stress of the allegations made against him. By the fall of 1993, Jackson was
addicted to the drugs.
Jackson's health deteriorated to the extent that he cancelled the remainder of
the Dangerous World Tour and went into drug rehabilitation for a few months.
The stress of the allegations also caused Jackson to stop eating, losing a large
amount of weight.
With his health in decline, Jackson's friends and legal advisers took over his
defence and finances; they called on him to settle the allegations out of court,
believing that he could not endure a lengthy trial.
Tabloid reaction to the allegations put Jackson in an unfavourable light.
Complaints about the coverage and media included everything from bias against
Jackson, accepting stories of alleged criminal activity for money to engaging in
illegal activity themselves.
On January 1, 1994, Jackson settled with the Chandler family and their legal
team out of court, in a civil lawsuit for $22 million. After the settlement
Jordan Chandler refused to continue with Police criminal proceedings. Jackson
was never charged, and the state closed its criminal investigation, citing lack
Later that year, Jackson married singer-songwriter Lisa Marie Presley, the
daughter of Elvis Presley. They had first met in 1975 during one of Jackson's
family engagements at the MGM Grand, and were reconnected through a mutual
friend in early 1993.
They stayed in contact every day over the telephone. As child molestation
accusations became public, Jackson became dependent on Lisa Marie for emotional
support; she was concerned about his faltering health and addiction to drugs.
Lisa Marie explained, "I believed he didn't do anything wrong and that he was
wrongly accused and yes I started falling for him. I wanted to save him. I felt
that I could do it." In a
phone call he made to her, she described him as high, incoherent and delusional.
Shortly afterward, she tried to persuade Jackson to settle the allegations out
of court and go into rehabilitation to recover—he subsequently did both.
Jackson proposed to Lisa Marie over the telephone towards the fall of 1993,
saying, "If I asked you to marry me, would you do it?".
Presley and Jackson married in the Dominican Republic in secrecy, the parties
denied that they had married for nearly two months.
The marriage was, in her words, "a married couple's life ... that was sexually
active". At the time, the
tabloid media speculated that the wedding was a ploy to prop up Jackson's public
image in light of prior sexual abuse allegations.
Jackson and Presley divorced less than two years later, remaining friendly.
1995–1999: HIStory, second marriage and
In 1995, Jackson merged his Northern Songs catalog with Sony's publishing
division creating Sony/ATV Music Publishing. Jackson retained half-ownership of
the company, earned $95 million upfront as well as the rights to even more
He then released the double album HIStory: Past, Present and Future, Book I.
The first disc, HIStory Begins, was a 15-track greatest hits album, and
was later released as Greatest Hits — HIStory Vol. I in 2001, the second
disc, HIStory Continues, contained 15 new songs. The album debuted at
number one on the charts and has been certified for seven million shipments in
the US. It is the best-selling
multiple-disc album of all-time, with 18 million copies (36 million units) sold
HIStory received a Grammy nomination for best album.
The first single released from the album was "Scream/Childhood", sung and
performed with Jackson's youngest sister Janet. The single had the highest debut
on the Billboard Hot 100 at number five, and received a Grammy nomination
for "Best Pop Collaboration With Vocals".
"You Are Not Alone" was the second single released from HIStory; it holds
the Guinness World Record for the first song ever to debut at number one on the
Billboard Hot 100 chart.
It was seen as a major artistic and commercial success, receiving a Grammy
nomination for "Best Pop Vocal Performance".
In late 1995, Jackson was rushed to a hospital after collapsing during
rehearsals for a televised performance; the incident was caused by a stress
related panic attack. "Earth
Song" was the third single released from HIStory, and topped the UK
singles chart for six weeks over Christmas 1995; it sold a million copies,
making it Jackson's most successful single in the UK.
The HIStory World Tour began on September 7, 1996, and finished on October
15, 1997. Jackson performed 82 concerts in 58 cities to over 4.5 million fans.
The show, which visited 5 continents and 35 countries, became Jackson's most
successful in terms of audience figures; he has not toured since.
During the Australian leg of the HIStory World Tour, Jackson married
dermatologist nurse, Deborah Jeanne Rowe, with whom he fathered a son, Michael
Joseph Jackson, Jr. (also known as "Prince"), and a daughter, Paris Michael
The pair first met in the mid-1980s, when Jackson was diagnosed with vitiligo.
She spent many years treating his illness as well as providing emotional
support, they built a strong friendship, before becoming romantically involved.
Originally there were no plans to marry, but following Rowe's first pregnancy,
Jackson's mother intervened and persuaded them to.
The couple divorced in 1999, with Rowe giving full custody rights of the
children to Jackson, they still remain friends.
In 1997, Jackson released Blood on the Dance Floor: HIStory in the Mix,
which contained remixes of hit singles from HIStory and five new songs.
Worldwide sales stand at 6 million copies as of 2007, making it one of the best
selling remix albums ever released. It reached number one in the UK, as did the
In the US, the album was certified platinum, but only reached number 24.
Forbes placed his annual income at $35 million in 1996 and $20 million in 1997.
Throughout June 1999, Jackson was involved in a number of charitable events.
He joined Luciano Pavarotti for a benefit concert in Modena, Italy. The show was
in support of the non-profit organization Warchild, and raised a million dollars
for the refugees of Kosovo, as well as additional funds for the children of
Later that month, Jackson organized a set of "Michael Jackson & Friends" benefit
concerts in Germany and Korea. Other artists involved included Slash, The
Scorpions, Boyz II Men, Luther Vandross, Mariah Carey, A. R. Rahman, Prabhu Deva
Sundaram, Shobhana, Andrea Bocelli and Luciano Pavarotti. The proceeds went to
the "Nelson Mandela Children's Fund", the Red Cross and UNESCO.
2000–2002: Label dispute, Invincible and
In 2000, Jackson was listed in the book of Guinness World Records for
his support of 39 charities, more than any other entertainer or personality.
At the time, Jackson was waiting for the licenses to the masters of his albums
to revert back to him; this allowed him to promote his old material how he liked
and prevented Sony from getting a cut of the profit. Jackson expected this to
occur early in the new millennium, however, due to the fine print and various
clauses in the contract, this revert date is still many years away. Jackson
began an investigation, and it emerged that the attorney who represented the
singer in the deal was also representing Sony, creating a conflict of interest.
Jackson was also concerned about another conflict of interest. For a number of
years, Sony had been pushing to buy all of Jackson's share in their music
catalog venture. If Jackson's career or financial situation were to deteriorate,
he would have to sell his catalog. Thus, Sony had something to gain from
Jackson's career failing.
Jackson was able to use these conflicts as leverage to exit his contract early.
Just before the release of Invincible, Jackson informed the head of Sony
Music Entertainment, Tommy Mottola, that he was leaving Sony.
As a result, all singles releases, video shootings and promotions concerning the
Invincible album were cancelled. Jackson made allegations in July 2002
that Mottola was a "devil" and a "racist" who did not support his
African-American artists, using them merely for his own personal gain.
He charged that Mottola had called his colleague Irv Gotti a "fat nigger".
Sony disputed claims that they had failed to promote Invincible with
sufficient energy, maintaining that Jackson refused to tour in the US.
Six years after his last studio album and after spending much of the late
1990s to early millennium out of the public eye, Jackson released Invincible
in October 2001 to much anticipation. To help promote the album, a special 30th
Anniversary celebration at Madison Square Garden occurred in September 2001 to
mark the singer's 30th year as a solo artist. Jackson appeared onstage alongside
his brothers for the first time since 1984.
The show also featured performances by Mýa, Usher, Whitney Houston, 'N Sync, and
Slash, among other artists.
In the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks, Jackson helped organize the
United We Stand: What More Can I Give benefit concert at RFK Stadium in
Washington D.C.. The concert was aired on October 21, 2001, and included
performances from dozens of major artists, including Jackson, who performed his
song "What More Can I Give" as the finale.
Invincible was a commercial success, debuting atop the charts in 13
countries and going on to sell approximately 10 million copies worldwide. It
received double-platinum certification in the US.
However, the sales for Invincible were notably low compared to his
previous releases, due in part to a diminishing pop music industry, the lack of
promotion, no supporting world tour and the label dispute.
The album spawned three singles, "You Rock My World", "Cry" and "Butterflies",
the latter did not have a music video.
Jackson's third child, Prince Michael Jackson II (also known as Blanket) was
born in 2002. The mother's
identity has not been released by Jackson, but he has said the child was the
result of artificial insemination from a surrogate mother and his own sperm
November of that year, Jackson brought his new born son onto the balcony of his
hotel room in Berlin, as fans stood below. Holding him in his right arm, with a
cloth loosely draped over the baby's face, Jackson briefly extended the baby
over the railing of the balcony, four stories above ground level, causing
widespread criticism in the media. Jackson later apologized for the incident,
calling it "a terrible mistake".
2003–2007: Documentary, trial and business
In 2003, Sony put out a compilation of Jackson's number-one hits on CD and
DVD. In the US, the album peaked at number 13 and was certified platinum by the
RIAA, in the UK it was certified for shipments of at least 1.2 million units.
At the same time, Jackson was charged with seven counts of child molestation and
two counts of administering an intoxicating agent in order to commit that
felony; all charges regarded the same boy, Gavin Arvizo, who was under 14 at the
time of the alleged crime. Earlier that year, a Granada Television documentary
called Living with Michael Jackson featured the singer, holding hands and
discussing sleeping arrangements with Arvizo, who would later accuse him of
child sexual abuse. In the
same documentary Jackson was observed spending large amounts of money in an
apparently frivolous manner, when he spent $6 million in a single store.
Jackson denied the sexual abuse allegations, saying that the sleepovers were
in no way sexual in nature. Jackson's friend Elizabeth Taylor defended him on
Larry King Live, saying that she had been there when they "were in the bed,
watching television. There was nothing abnormal about it. There was no
touchy-feely going on. We laughed like children and we watched a lot of Walt
Disney. There was nothing odd about it."
During the investigation, Jackson's profile were examined by a mental health
professional called Dr. Stan Katz; the doctor spent several hours with the
accuser too. The assessment made by Katz, was that Jackson had become a
regressed 10-year-old and did not fit the profile of a pedophile.
Following his upcoming trial, Jackson became dependent on morphine and
Demerol, a dependency which he subsequently overcame.
The People v. Jackson trial began in Santa Maria, California, two years after
Jackson was originally charged. The trial lasted five months, until the end of
May 2005. During the trial, the singer again suffered from stress-related
illnesses and severe weight loss, that would alter his appearance.
In June, Jackson was acquitted on all counts.
Following the trial, Jackson relocated to the Persian Gulf island of Bahrain as
a guest of Sheikh Abdullah.
Sony BMG released Visionary: The Video Singles to the European market:
a series of 20 of his biggest hit singles of the 1980s and 1990s. Each single
was issued weekly over a five-month period in Dual Disc format (DVD video on one
side, CD audio on the other), and the whole group of discs was made available as
a boxed set afterward. The
box set was released in the US on November 14, 2006.
Reports of financial problems for Jackson became frequent in 2006 after the
closure of the main house on the Neverland Ranch as a cost-cutting measure.
One prominent financial issue for him concerned a $270 million loan secured
against his music publishing holdings. After delayed repayments on the loan, a
refinancing package shifted the loans from Bank of America to debt specialists
Fortress Investments. A new package proposed by Sony would have had Jackson
borrow an additional $300 million and reduce the interest rate payable on the
loan, while giving Sony the future option to buy half of Jackson's stake in
their jointly owned publishing company (leaving Jackson with a 25% stake).
Jackson agreed to a Sony-backed refinancing deal, although details were not made
public. Despite these loans,
according to Forbes, Jackson was still making as much as $75 million a year from
his publishing partnership with Sony alone.
One of Jackson's first documented public appearances since his trial was in
November 2006, when he visited the London office of the Guinness World
Records. He received eight records, among them "First Entertainer to Earn
More Than 100 Million Dollars in a Year" and "Most Successful Entertainer of All
was awarded the Diamond Award on November 15, 2006, for selling over 100 million
albums, at the World Music Awards.
Following the death of James Brown, Jackson returned to the US to pay his
respects. He, along with more than 8,000 people, paid tribute during Brown's
public funeral on December 30, 2006.
In late 2006, Jackson agreed to share joint custody of his first two children
with ex-wife Debbie Rowe.
Jackson and Sony bought Famous Music LLC from Viacom in 2007. This deal gave him
the rights to songs by Eminem, Shakira and Beck, among others.
I've been in the entertainment industry since I was six-years-old... As
Charles Dickens says, "It's been the best of times, the worst of times."
But I would not change my career... While some have made deliberate
attempts to hurt me, I take it in stride because I have a loving family,
a strong faith and wonderful friends and fans who have, and continue, to
2008–present: Milestones, real estate and return
to live performance
Jackson issued the double-disc album Thriller 25, a 25th anniversary
edition of Thriller. The set contained the original nine tracks from
Thriller, re-mixes and a new song called "For All Time". Two singles were
released to moderate success: "The Girl Is Mine 2008" and "Wanna Be Startin'
Somethin' 2008". Thriller 25 was a commercial success, having done
particularly well as a re-issue, peaking at number one in eight countries and
Europe. It reached number two in the US, number three in the UK and top 10 on
over 30 national charts.
It was ineligible for the Billboard 200 chart as a re-release, but
entered atop the Pop Catalog chart, where it stayed for 10 non-consecutive weeks
and had the best sales on that chart since December 1996.
After 12 weeks it sold 3 million copies worldwide.
With the arrival of Halloween that November, Thriller 25 spent an
eleventh non-consecutive week atop the US catalog chart. US sales of the album
at that point were 688,000 copies, making it the best selling catalog album of
To celebrate Jackson's 50th birthday, Sony BMG released a compilation album
called King of Pop in various countries. These albums included tracks
from Jackson's group and solo career, all voted for by fans. The albums had
different tracklists, according to how the fans of each nation voted.
Although it was not released in the US, King of Pop did reach the top 10
in the vast majority of countries it was issued in. It also charted in other
countries, albeit lower, from imported sales.
Fortress considered a foreclosure sale of Neverland Ranch to service a loan
Jackson owed on the property, but ultimately sold the loan to Colony Capital
LLC. In November, Jackson transferred the title of Neverland Ranch to Sycamore
Valley Ranch Company LLC. It is unclear if Jackson still owns any stake in the
property—Sycamore Valley Ranch is a joint venture between Jackson and Colony
Capital LLC—the loan Jackson owed was cleared, he acquired $35 million in the
From July 8, 2009 to February 24, 2010, Jackson will perform 50 sell out
concerts to over one million people, at London's O2 arena.
According to Jackson's website, tickets sales for the concerts broke several
records. During a prior press conference, Jackson made suggestions of possible
Randy Phillips, president and chief executive of AEG Live stated that the first
10 dates alone would earn the singer approximately £50 million.
Themes and genres
Steve Huey of Allmusic asserts that throughout his solo career, Jackson's
versatility has allowed him to experiment with various themes and genres.
As a musician, he has ranged from Motown's dance fare and ballads to
techno-edged new jack swing to work that incorporates both funk rhythms and hard
Unlike many artists, Jackson did not write his songs on paper. Instead he would
dictate into a sound recorder; when recording he would sing from memory.
Several critics observed Off the Wall was crafted from funk, disco-pop,
soul, soft rock, jazz and pop ballads.
Prominent examples include the ballad "She's out of My Life", and the two disco
tunes "Workin' Day and Night" and "Get on the Floor".
According to Huey, Thriller refined the strengths of Off the Wall;
the dance and rock tracks were more aggressive, while the pop tunes and ballads
were softer and more soulful.
Notable tracks included the ballads "The Lady in My Life", "Human Nature" and
"The Girl Is Mine"; the funk pieces "Billie Jean" and "Wanna Be Startin'
Somethin'"; and the disco set "Baby Be Mine" and "P.Y.T. (Pretty Young Thing)".
With Thriller, Christoper Connelly of Rolling Stone commented that
Jackson developed his long association with the subliminal theme of paranoia and
Allmusic's Stephen Erlewine noted this is evident on the songs "Billie Jean" and
"Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'".
In "Billie Jean", Jackson sings about an obsessive fan who alleges he has
fathered a child of hers.
In "Wanna Be Startin' Somethin'" he argues against gossip and the media.
The anti-gang-violence rock song "Beat It" became a homage to West Side Story,
and was Jackson's first successful rock cross-over piece, according to Huey.
He also observed that the title track "Thriller" began Jackson's interest with
the theme of the supernatural, a topic he revisited in subsequent years.
In 1985, Jackson wrote the charity anthem "We Are the World"; humanitarian
themes later became a central component of his life and music.
In Bad, Jackson's concept of the predatory lover can be seen on the
rock song "Dirty Diana".
The lead single "I Just Can't Stop Loving You" was a traditional love ballad,
while "Man in the Mirror", an anthemic ballad of confession and resolution,
improved on his earlier "We Are the World".
"Smooth Criminal" was an evocation of bloody assault, rape and likely murder.
Allmusic's Stephen Erlewine states that Dangerous presents Jackson as a
stark paradoxal individual.
He comments the album is more diverse than his previous Bad, as it
appeals to an urban audience while also attracting the middle class with anthems
like "Heal the World".
The first half of the record is dedicated to new jack swing, including songs
like "Jam" and "Remember the Time".
The album is Jackson's first where social ills become a primary theme; "Why You
Wanna Trip on Me", for example, protests against world hunger, AIDS,
homelessness and drugs.
Dangerous contains sexually charged efforts like "In the Closet", a love
song about desire and denial, risk and repression, solitude and connection,
privacy and revelation.
The title track continues the theme of the predatory lover and compulsive
second half includes introspective, pop-gospel anthems such as "Will You Be
There", "Heal the World" and "Keep the Faith"; these songs show Jackson finally
opening up about various personal struggles and worries.
In the ballad "Gone Too Soon", Jackson gives tribute to his friend Ryan White
and the plight of those with AIDS.
HIStory creates an atmosphere of paranoia.
Its content focuses on the hardships and public struggles Jackson went through
just prior to its production. In the new jack swing-funk-rock efforts "Scream"
and "Tabloid Junkie", along with the R&B ballad "You Are Not Alone", Jackson
retaliates against the injustice and isolation he feels, and directs much of his
anger at the media.
In the introspective ballad "Stranger in Moscow", Jackson laments over his "fall
from grace", while songs like "Earth Song", "Childhood", "Little Susie" and
"Smile" are all operatic pop pieces.
In the track "D.S.", Jackson launched a verbal attack against Tom Sneddon. He
describes Sneddon as an antisocial, white supremacist who wanted to "get my ass,
dead or alive". Of the song, Sneddon said, "I have not—shall we say—done him the
honor of listening to it, but I’ve been told that it ends with the sound of a
Invincible found Jackson working heavily with producer Rodney Jerkins.
It is a record made up of urban soul like "Cry" and "The Lost Children", ballads
such as "Speechless", "Break of Dawn" and "Butterflies" and mixes hip hop, pop
and rap in "2000 Watts", "Heartbreaker" and "Invincible".
Jackson has been singing since a child, and over time his voice and vocal
style have notably changed, either through puberty or a personal preference to
align his vocal interpretation to the themes and genres he chooses to express.
Between 1971 and 1975, Jackson's voice "descended ever so slightly from boy
soprano to his current androgynous high tenor".
In the mid-1970s, the singer adopted a "vocal hiccup" as seen in "Shake Your
Body (Down to the Ground)". The purpose of the hiccup—somewhat like a gulping
for air or gasping—is to help promote a certain emotion, be it excitement,
sadness or fear.
With the arrival of Off the Wall in the late 1970s, Jackson's abilities
as a vocalist were well regarded; Allmusic described him as a "blindingly gifted
vocalist". At the
time, Rolling Stone compared his vocals to the "breathless, dreamy
stutter" of Stevie Wonder. Their analysis was also that "Jackson's
feathery-timbered tenor is extraordinary beautiful. It slides smoothly into a
startling falsetto that's used very daringly".
1982 saw the release of Thriller, and Rolling Stone were of the
opinion that Jackson was then singing in a "fully adult voice" that was "tinged
The release of "Bad" in 1987 displayed gritty lead vocals on the verse and
lighter tones employed on the chorus.
A distinctive deliberate mispronunciation used frequently by Jackson,
occasionally spelt "cha'mone" or "shamone", is also a staple in impressions and
caricatures of him. The turn
of the 1990s saw the release of the paradoxical, introspective album
Dangerous, here Jackson used his vocals to intensify the split themes and
genres described earlier. The New York Times noted that on some tracks,
"he gulps for breath, his voice quivers with anxiety or drops to a desperate
whisper, hissing through clenched teeth" and he had a "wretched tone".
When singing of brotherhood or self-esteem the musician would return to "smooth"
the Closet" contained heavy breathing and a loop of five scat-sung syllables,
whereas in the album's title track, Jackson performs a spoken rap.
When commenting on Invincible, Rolling Stone were of the opinion
that—at the age of 43—Jackson still performed, "exquisitely voiced rhythm tracks
and vibrating vocal harmonies".
Nelson George summed by Jackson's vocals as, "The grace, the aggression, the
growling, the natural boyishness, the falsetto, the smoothness—that combination
of elements mark him as a major vocalist".
Steve Huey of Allmusic observes the fact that Jackson transformed the music
video into an art form and a promotional tool through complex story lines, dance
routines, special effects and famous cameo appearances; simultaneously breaking
down racial barriers.
According to director Vincent Paterson, who collaborated with the singer on
several music videos, Jackson conceptualized many of the darker, bleak themes in
Before the success of the Thriller album, Jackson struggled to receive
coverage on MTV because he was African American.
Pressure from CBS Records persuaded MTV to start showing "Billie Jean" and later
"Beat It", leading to a lengthy partnership with Jackson that helped other black
music artists gain recognition.
The popularity of his video on MTV helped to put the relatively young channel
"on the map"; MTV's focus shifted in favour of pop and R&B.
Short films like Thriller largely remained unique to Jackson, while the
group dance sequence in "Beat It" has frequently been imitated.
The choreography in Thriller has become a part of global pop culture,
replicated everywhere from Bollywood to prisons in the Philippines.
The Thriller short film marked an increase in scale for music videos, and
has been named the most successful music video ever by the Guinness World
In the 18-minute music video for "Bad"—directed by Martin Scorsese—Jackson
began using sexual imagery and choreography not previously seen in his work. He
occasionally grabbed or touched his chest, torso and crotch. While he has
described this as "choreography," it garnered a mixed reception from both fans
and critics; Time magazine described it as "infamous". The video also
featured Wesley Snipes; Jackson's videos would often feature famous cameos roles
in the future.
For "Smooth Criminal", Jackson experimented with an innovative "anti-gravity
lean" in his performances, for which he was granted US Patent No. 5,255,452.
Although the music video for "Leave Me Alone" was not officially released in the
US, in 1989, it was nominated for four Billboard Music Video Awards,
winning three; the same year it won a Golden Lion Award for the quality of the
special effects used in its production. In 1990, "Leave Me Alone" won a Grammy
for Best Music Video, Short Form.
The MTV Video Vanguard Artist of the Decade Award was given to Jackson to
celebrate his accomplishments in the art form in the 1980s; the following year
the award was renamed in his honour.
"Black or White" was accompanied by a controversial music video, which, on
November 14, 1991, simultaneously premiered in 27 countries with an estimated
audience of 500 million people, the largest viewing ever for a music video.
It featured scenes construed as having a sexual nature as well as depictions of
violence. The offending scenes in the final half of the 14-minute version were
edited out to prevent the video from being banned, and Jackson apologized.
Along with Jackson, it featured Macaulay Culkin, Peggy Lipton and George Wendt.
It helped usher in morphing as an important technology in music videos.
"Remember the Time" was an elaborate production, and became one of his
longest videos at over nine minutes. Set in ancient Egypt, it featured
groundbreaking visual effects and appearances by Eddie Murphy, Iman and Magic
Johnson, along with a distinct complex dance routine.
The video for "In the Closet" was Jackson's most sexually provocative piece to
date. It featured supermodel Naomi Campbell in a courtship dance with Jackson.
The video was banned in South Africa because of its imagery.
The music video for "Scream", directed by Mark Romanek and production
designer Tom Foden, is one of Jackson's most critically acclaimed. In 1995, it
gained 11 MTV Video Music Award Nominations—more than any other music video—and
won "Best Dance Video", "Best Choreography", and "Best Art Direction".
The song and its accompanying video are a response to the backlash Jackson
received from the media after being accused of child molestation in 1993.
A year later, it won a Grammy for Best Music Video, Short Form; shortly
afterward Guinness World Records listed it as the most expensive music
video ever made at a cost of $7 million.
"Earth Song" was accompanied by an expensive and well-received music video
that gained a Grammy nomination for Best Music Video, Short Form in 1997. The
video had an environmental theme, showing images of animal cruelty,
deforestation, pollution and war. Using special effects, time is reversed so
that life returns, war ends and the forests re-grow.
Released in 1997 and premiering at the 1996 Cannes Film Festival, Ghosts
was a short film written by Jackson and Stephen King and directed by Stan
Winston. The video for Ghosts is over 38 minutes long and holds the
Guinness World Record as the world's longest music video.
Legacy and influence
Inducted into the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 1984, Jackson has had a notable
impact on music and culture throughout the world. He broke down racial barriers,
transformed the art of the music video and paved the way for modern pop music in
his own country. Jackson's work, distinctive musical sound and vocal style have
influenced numerous hip hop, pop and R&B artists, including Mariah Carey,
Usher, Britney Spears,
and R. Kelly.
For much of his career, he had an "unparalleled" level of worldwide influence
over the younger generation through his musical and humanitarian contributions.
Throughout his career he received numerous honours and awards, including the
World Music Awards' Best-Selling Pop Male Artist of the Millennium, the American
Music Award's Artist of the Century Award and the Bambi Pop Artist of the
He is a double-inductee of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, once as a member of
The Jackson 5 in 1997 and later as a solo artist in 2001. Jackson was also an
inductee of the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 2002.
His awards include multiple Guinness World Records (eight in 2006 alone),
13 Grammy Awards, 13 number one singles in his solo career—more than any other
male artist in the Hot 100 era—and the sale of over 750 million units worldwide.
He is characterized as "an unstoppable juggernaut, possessed of all the tools
to dominate the charts seemingly at will: an instantly identifiable voice,
eye-popping dance moves, stunning musical versatility and loads of sheer star
power". In the
mid-1980s, Time described Jackson as "the hottest single phenomenon since
Elvis Presley". By
1990, Vanity Fair had already cited Jackson as the most popular artist in
the history of show business.
Daily Telegraph writer Tom Utley called him an "extremely important
figure in the history of popular culture" and a "genius".
His total lifetime earnings from royalties on his solo recordings and music
videos, revenue from concerts and endorsements have been estimated at
$500 million; some analysts have speculated that his music catalogue holdings
could be worth billions of dollars.
Jackson's successful career has made him a part of pop culture for almost four
recent years he has been cited as one of the world's most famous men.
- 1972: Got to Be There
- 1972: Ben
- 1973: Music & Me
- 1975: Forever, Michael
- 1979: Off the Wall
- 1982: Thriller
- 1987: Bad
- 1991: Dangerous
- 1995: HIStory
- 2001: Invincible
mj, the best. will never forget you! <3
thank you very much for such elaborate and
comprehensive article, not found elsewhere on the internet...