Barack Hussein Obama II
/bəˈrɑːk huːˈseɪn oʊˈbɑːmə/
; born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and
current President of the United States. He is the first African American to
hold the office. Obama was the junior United States Senator from Illinois
from January 2005 until November 2008, when he resigned following his
election to the presidency.
Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and
Harvard Law School, where he was the first African American president of the
Harvard Law Review. He worked as a community organizer in Chicago
prior to earning his law degree, and practiced as a civil rights attorney in
Chicago before serving three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004.
He also taught constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School
from 1992 to 2004.
Following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. House of
Representatives in 2000, Obama was elected to the United States Senate in
November 2004. Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic
National Convention in July 2004. During his tenure as Senator, he served on
several committees, including the Foreign Relations, Environment and Public
Works, Veterans' Affairs, Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland
Security and Governmental Affairs.
President Obama Address to Congress
Comment "Barack Obama rocks and I will always respect him."
Have your say
After a particularly close campaign in the 2008 Democratic Party
presidential primary against rival Hillary Rodham Clinton, he won his
party's nomination as a candidate for president, becoming the first major
African American candidate for president. In the 2008 general election, he
defeated Republican candidate John McCain and was sworn in as president on
January 20, 2009.
Early life and career
Barack Obama was born at the Kapi'olani Medical Center for Women &
Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, United States,
to Stanley Ann Dunham, an
American of mainly English descent from Wichita, Kansas,
and Barack Obama, Sr., a Luo from Nyang’oma Kogelo, Nyanza Province, Kenya.
Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of
Hawaii at Mānoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship.
The couple married on February 2, 1961,
and Obama was born later that year. His parents separated when he was two
years old, and they divorced in 1964.
Obama's father returned to Kenya and saw his son only once more before dying
in an automobile accident in 1982.
After her divorce, Dunham married Indonesian student Lolo Soetoro, who
was attending college in Hawaii. When Suharto, a military leader in
Soetoro's home country, came to power in 1967, all Indonesian students
studying abroad were recalled and the family moved to the island nation.
From ages six to ten, Obama attended local schools in Jakarta, including
Besuki Public School and St. Francis of Assisi School.
He then returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents,
Madelyn and Stanley Armour Dunham, and attended Punahou School, a private
college preparatory school, from the fifth grade in 1971 until his
graduation from high school in 1979.
Obama's mother returned to Hawaii in 1972 and remained there until 1977,
when she relocated to Indonesia to work as an anthropological field worker.
Dunham finally returned to Hawaii in 1994 and lived there for one year
before dying of ovarian cancer.
Of his early childhood, Obama recalled, "That my father looked nothing
like the people around me—that he was black as pitch, my mother white as
milk—barely registered in my mind."
He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions
of his multiracial heritage.
He disclosed that he used alcohol, marijuana and cocaine during his teenage
years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind."
At the 2008 Civil Forum on the Presidency in 2008, Obama identified his
high-school drug use as his "greatest moral failure."
Some of his fellow students at Punahou School later told the Honolulu
Star-Bulletin that Obama was mature for his age, and that he sometimes
attended college parties and other events in order to associate with African
American students and military service people. Reflecting later on his
formative years in Honolulu, Obama wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii
offered—to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual
respect—became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values
that I hold most dear."
Following high school, he moved to Los Angeles in 1979 to attend
Occidental College. After
two years he transferred in 1981 to Columbia University in New York City,
where he majored in political science with a specialization in international
relations and graduated
with a B.A. in 1983. He worked for a year at the Business International
and then at the New York Public Interest Research Group.
After four years in New York City, Obama moved to Chicago, where he was
hired as director of the Developing Communities Project (DCP), a
church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic
parishes in Greater Roseland (Roseland, West Pullman and Riverdale) on
Chicago's far South Side. He worked there as a community organizer from June
1985 to May 1988.
During his three years as the DCP's director, its staff grew from one to
thirteen and its annual budget grew from $70,000 to $400,000. He helped set
up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a
tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.
Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel
Foundation, a community organizing institute.
In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time to Europe for three weeks and
then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives
for the first time. He
returned in August 2006 in a visit to his father's birthplace, a village
near Kisumu in rural western Kenya.
Obama entered Harvard Law School in late 1988. He was selected as an
editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year,
and president of the journal in his second year.
During his summers, he returned to Chicago where he worked as a summer
associate at the law firms of Sidley & Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter
in 1990. After graduating
with a Juris Doctor (J.D.) magna cum laude
from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.
Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law
Review gained national media attention
and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race
though it evolved into a personal memoir. The manuscript was published in
mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.
From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote, a
voter registration drive with a staff of ten and 700 volunteers; it achieved
its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in
the state, and led to Crain's Chicago Business naming Obama to its
1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.
For twelve years, Obama served as a professor at the University of
Chicago Law School teaching constitutional law. He was first classified as a
Lecturer from 1992 to 1996 and then as a Senior Lecturer from 1996 to 2004.
He also joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a twelve-attorney law firm
specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic
development, where he was an associate from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel
from 1996 to 2004, with his law license becoming inactive in 2002.
Obama was a founding member of the board of directors of Public Allies in
1992, resigning before his wife, Michelle, became the founding executive
director of Public Allies Chicago in early 1993.
He served from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Woods Fund of
Chicago, which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing
Communities Project, and also from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of
the Joyce Foundation.
Obama served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge
from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of
directors from 1995 to 1999.
He also served on the board of directors of the Chicago Lawyers' Committee
for Civil Rights Under Law, the Center for Neighborhood Technology, and the
Lugenia Burns Hope Center.
Political career: 1996–2008
State legislator: 1997–2004
Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding State
Senator Alice Palmer as Senator from Illinois's 13th District, which then
spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park-Kenwood south to
South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn.
Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation reforming
ethics and health care laws.
He sponsored a law increasing tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated
welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.
In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative
Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations
and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home
Obama was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican
Yesse Yehudah in the general election, and was reelected again in 2002.
In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary run for the U.S. House of
Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.
In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health
and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority,
regained a majority. He
sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor
racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they
detained and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate
videotaping of homicide interrogations.
During his 2004 general election campaign for U.S. Senate, police
representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police
organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.
Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his
election to the U.S. Senate.
2004 U.S. Senate campaign
In mid-2002, Obama began considering a run for the U.S. Senate; he
enlisted political strategist David Axelrod that fall and formally announced
his candidacy in January 2003.
Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic
predecessor Carol Moseley Braun not to contest the race launched wide-open
Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.
Obama's candidacy was boosted by Axelrod's advertising campaign featuring
images of the late Chicago Mayor Harold Washington and an endorsement by the
daughter of the late Paul Simon, former U.S. Senator for Illinois.
In the March 2004 primary election, Obama won an unexpected landslide
victory with 53% of the vote in a seven-candidate field, 29% ahead of his
nearest Democratic rival.
In July 2004, Obama wrote and delivered the keynote address at the 2004
Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts.
He spoke about changing the U.S. government's economic and social
priorities, while questioning the Bush administration's management of the
Iraq War and speaking about obligations to American soldiers. He criticized
heavily partisan views of the electorate and asked Americans to find unity,
saying, "There is not a liberal America and a conservative America; there's
the United States of America."
Though it was not televised by the three major broadcast news networks, a
combined 9.1 million viewers saw Obama's speech, which was a highlight of
the convention and elevated his status as a star in the Democratic Party.
Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary
winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.
Two months later, Alan Keyes accepted the Illinois Republican Party's
nomination to replace Ryan.
A long-time resident of Maryland, Keyes established legal residency in
Illinois with the nomination.
In the November 2004 general election, Obama received 70% of the vote to
Keyes' 27%, the largest victory margin for a statewide race in Illinois
U.S. Senator: 2005–2008
Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 4, 2005.
Obama was the fifth African American Senator in U.S. history and the third
to have been popularly elected.
He was the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.
CQ Weekly, a nonpartisan publication, characterized him as a "loyal
Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes in 2005–2007. The
National Journal ranked him as the "most liberal" senator based on an
assessment of selected votes during 2007; in 2005 he was ranked sixteenth
most liberal, and in 2006 he was ranked tenth.
In 2008, Congress.org ranked him as the eleventh most powerful Senator,
and the politician was the most popular in the Senate, enjoying 72% approval
in Illinois. Obama
announced on November 13, 2008 that he would resign his senate seat on
November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on
his transition period for the presidency.
This enabled him to avoid the conflict of dual roles as President-elect and
Senator in the lame duck session of Congress, which no sitting member of
Congress had faced since Warren Harding.
Obama voted in favour of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and cosponsored
the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.
In September 2006, Obama supported a related bill, the Secure Fence Act.
Obama introduced two initiatives bearing his name: Lugar–Obama, which
expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional
weapons, and the
Coburn–Obama Transparency Act, which authorized the establishment of
USAspending.gov, a web search engine on federal spending.
On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama, along with Senators Thomas R. Carper, Tom
Coburn, and John McCain, introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening
Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.
Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners
to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill
failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.
Obama is not hostile to tort reform and voted for the Class Action Fairness
Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 which grants immunity from
civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA
warrantless wiretapping operations.
In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic
of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the
first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.
In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet
provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed
into law in September 2007.
Obama also introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention
Act, a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections
and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007,
neither of which has been signed into law.
Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization
Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges.
This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.
He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state
pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which has not passed
committee, and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear
Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health
Insurance Program providing one year of job protection for family members
caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.
Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations,
Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006.
In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took
additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.
He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs.
As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official
trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met
with Mahmoud Abbas before he became President of the Palestinian Authority,
and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi condemning corruption in the
2008 presidential campaign
On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the
United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield,
The choice of the announcement site was symbolic because it was also where
Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858.
Throughout the campaign, Obama emphasized the issues of rapidly ending the
Iraq War, increasing energy independence and providing universal health
A large number of candidates initially entered the Democratic Party
presidential primaries. The field narrowed to a contest between Obama and
Senator Hillary Clinton after initial contests, with the race remaining
close throughout the primary process.
On May 31, the Democratic National Committee agreed to seat all of the
disputed Michigan and Florida delegates at the national convention, each
with a half-vote, narrowing Obama's delegate lead.
On June 3, with all states counted, Obama was named the presumptive nominee
and delivered a victory speech in St. Paul, Minnesota. Clinton suspended her
campaign and endorsed him on June 7.
Obama now began to campaign against Senator John McCain, the presumptive
Republican nominee. On August 23, 2008, Obama announced that he had selected
Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate.
At the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Hillary
Clinton gave a speech in support of Obama's candidacy and called for him to
be nominated by acclamation as the Democratic candidate.
Obama delivered his acceptance speech to over 75,000 supporters and
presented his policy goals; the speech was viewed by over 38 million people
During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's
campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of
On June 19, 2008, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate
to turn down public financing in the general election since the system was
created in 1976.
After McCain was nominated as the Republican candidate, three
presidential debates were held between the contenders spanning September and
In November, Obama won the presidency with 52.9% of the popular vote to
McCain's 45.7% and 365
electoral votes to 173.
to become the first African American president.
In his victory speech, delivered before thousands of his supporters in
Chicago's Grant Park, Obama proclaimed that "change has come to America".
Thus began the transition period from the Bush to Obama administration.
The inauguration of Barack Obama as the forty-fourth President, and Joe
Biden as Vice President, took place on January 20, 2009. The theme of the
inauguration was "A New Birth of Freedom," commemorating the 200th
anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln.
In his first few days in office, Obama issued executive orders and
presidential memoranda reversing President Bush's ban on federal funding to
foreign establishments that allow abortions (known as the Mexico City Policy
and referred to by critics as the "Global Gag Rule"),
changed procedures to promote disclosure under the Freedom of Information
Act, directed the U.S.
military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq,
and reduced the secrecy given to presidential records.
He also issued orders closing Guantanamo Bay detention camp "as soon as
practicable and no later than" January 2010.
On February 17, 2009, Obama signed into law a $787 billion economic
stimulus package with the intended goal of ameliorating the effects of the
recession brought about by the subprime mortgage crisis and the resulting
credit crunch. The legislation was the third version of the bill, which had
been under debate for over three weeks in the House of Representatives and
Then on February 27, 2009, Obama declared combat operations will end in
Iraq within 18 months. "Let me say this as plainly as I can: By August 31,
2010, our combat mission in Iraq will end," Obama told Marines about to
deploy to Afghanistan.
A method that some political scientists use for gauging ideology is to
compare the annual ratings by the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) with
the ratings by the American Conservative Union (ACU).
Based on his years in Congress, Obama has a lifetime average conservative
rating of 7.67% from the ACU
and a lifetime average liberal rating of 90% from the ADA.
In economic affairs, in April 2005, he defended the New Deal social
welfare policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt and opposed Republican proposals
to establish private accounts for Social Security.
In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Obama spoke out against government
indifference to growing economic class divisions, calling on both political
parties to take action to restore the social safety net for the poor.
Shortly before announcing his presidential campaign, Obama said he supports
universal health care in the United States.
He has proposed rewarding teachers for performance from traditional merit
pay systems, assuring unions that changes would be pursued through the
collective bargaining process.
On taxation, his plan would eliminate taxes for senior citizens with
incomes of less than $50,000 a year, raise income taxes for those making
over $250,000, raise the capital gains and dividends taxes,
close corporate tax loopholes, lift the income cap on Social Security taxes,
restrict offshore tax havens, and simplify filing of income tax returns by
pre-filling wage and bank information already collected by the IRS.
In September 2007, he blamed special interests for distorting the U.S. tax
For environment, Obama proposed a cap and trade auction system to
restrict carbon emissions and a ten year program of investments in new
energy sources to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil.
Obama proposed that all pollution credits must be auctioned, with no
grandfathering of credits for oil and gas companies, and the spending of the
revenue obtained on energy development and economic transition costs.
In foreign affairs, Obama was an early opponent of the George W. Bush
administration's policies on Iraq.
On October 2, 2002, the day President Bush and Congress agreed on the joint
resolution authorizing the Iraq War,
Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally,
and spoke out against the war.
He addressed another anti-war rally in March 2003 and told the crowd that
"it's not too late" to stop the war.
Although Obama had previously said he wanted all U.S. troops out of Iraq
within 16 months of becoming president, after he won the primary, he said he
might change or refine plans as further developments unfold.
In November 2006, he called for a "phased redeployment of U.S. troops from
Iraq" and an opening of diplomatic dialogue with Syria and Iran.
In a March 2007 speech to AIPAC, a pro-Israel lobby, he said that the
primary way to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons is through talks
and diplomacy, although he did not rule out military action.
Obama has indicated that he would engage in "direct presidential diplomacy"
with Iran without preconditions.
In August 2007, Obama remarked that "it was a terrible mistake to fail to
act" against a 2005 meeting of al-Qaeda leaders that U.S. intelligence had
confirmed to be taking place in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal
Areas. He said that as president, he would not miss a similar opportunity,
even without the support of the Pakistani government.
Obama stated that if elected he would enact budget cuts in the range of
tens of billions of dollars, stop investing in "unproven" missile defense
systems, not weaponize space, "slow development of Future Combat Systems,"
and work towards eliminating all nuclear weapons. Obama favours ending
development of new nuclear weapons, reducing the current U.S. nuclear
stockpile, enacting a global ban on production of fissile material, and
seeking negotiations with Russia in order to make it less necessary to have
ICBMs on high-alert status.
Obama has called for more assertive action to oppose genocide in the
Darfur region of Sudan.
He has divested $180,000 in personal holdings of Sudan-related stock, and
has urged divestment from companies doing business in Iran.
In the July–August 2007 issue of Foreign Affairs, Obama called for an
outward looking post-Iraq War foreign policy and, in his view, the renewal
of American military, diplomatic, and moral leadership in the world. Saying
that "we can neither retreat from the world nor try to bully it into
submission," he called on Americans to "lead the world, by deed and by
Family and personal life
In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended
family: "It's like a little mini-United Nations," he said. "I've got
relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like
Obama has seven half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family, six of them
living, and a half-sister with whom he was raised, Maya Soetoro-Ng, the
daughter of his mother and her Indonesian second husband.
Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham
until her death on November 2, 2008
just two days before his election to the Presidency. In Dreams from My
Father, Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native
American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, president of
the southern Confederacy during the American Civil War.
Obama's great-uncle served in the 89th Division that overran Ohrdruf,
the first Nazi camp liberated by U.S. troops during World War II.
Obama was known as "Barry" in his youth, but asked to be addressed with
his given name during his college years.
Besides his native English, Obama speaks Indonesian at the conversational
level, which he learned during his four childhood years in Jakarta.
He plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high
school's varsity team.
In June 1989, Obama met Michelle Robinson when he was employed as a
summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.
Assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, Robinson joined
him at group social functions, but declined his initial requests to date.
They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were
married on October 3, 1992.
The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998,
followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.
The Obama daughters attended the private University of Chicago Laboratory
Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls
started at the private Sidwell Friends School.
Applying the proceeds of a book deal, the family moved in 2005 from a
Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to a $1.6 million house in neighboring
Kenwood, Chicago. The
purchase of an adjacent lot and sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of
developer and friend Tony Rezko attracted media attention because of Rezko's
subsequent indictment and conviction on political corruption charges that
were unrelated to Obama.
In December 2007, Money magazine estimated the Obama family's net
worth at $1.3 million.
Their 2007 tax return showed a household income of $4.2 million—up from
about $1 million in 2006 and $1.6 million in 2005—mostly from sales of his
Obama is a Christian whose religious views have evolved in his adult
life. In The Audacity of Hope, Obama writes that he "was not raised
in a religious household." He describes his mother, raised by non-religious
parents (whom Obama has specified elsewhere as "non-practicing Methodists
and Baptists") to be detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most
spiritually awakened person that I have ever known." He describes his father
as "raised a Muslim," but a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met,
and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful."
Obama explained how, through working with black churches as a community
organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the
African-American religious tradition to spur social change."
He was baptized at the Trinity United Church of Christ in 1988 and was an
active member there for two decades.
Obama resigned from Trinity during the Presidential campaign after
controversial statements made by Rev. Jeremiah Wright became public.
Obama has tried to quit smoking several times,
and said he will not smoke in the White House.
Cultural and political image
Obama's family history, early life and upbringing, and Ivy League
education differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who
launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil
Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough",
Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black
Journalists that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to
white folks then there must be something wrong."
Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech,
saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been
passed to a new generation."
Many have argued that Obama is an adept orator on par with other renowned
speakers in the past such as Martin Luther King, Jr.
and Ronald Reagan.
University of Virginia professor Jonathan Haidt researched the effectiveness
of Obama's public speaking and concluded that part of his success is because
he is adept at inspiring the emotion of elevation.
Obama delivered a series of weekly internet video addresses during his
pre-inauguration transition period;
he has suggested he will make a series of addresses similar to Franklin D.
Roosevelt's famous fireside chats throughout his term as president to
explain his policies and actions.
Many commentators mentioned Obama's international appeal as a defining
factor for his public image.
Not only did several polls show strong support for him in other countries,
but Obama established relationships with prominent foreign figures before
his presidential candidacy, including with then-British Prime Minister Tony
Blair, with Italy's
Democratic Party leader and then Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni,
and with French President Nicolas Sarkozy.
Obama won Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audio book
versions of Dreams from My Father in February 2006 and for The
Audacity of Hope in February 2008.
His "Yes We Can" speech, which artists independently set to music, was
viewed by 10 million people on YouTube in the first month,
and received an Emmy Award.
In December 2008, Time magazine named Barack Obama as its Person of
the Year for his historic candidacy and election, which it described as "the
steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments."
Barack Obama rocks and I will always respect him.
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